"Orao (English = Eagle) was an 8-bit computer developed by PEL Varadin in 1984. It was used as a standard primary school computer in Croatia from 1985 to 1991.
Orao (code named YU102) was designed by Miroslav Kocijan to supersede Galeb (code named YU101). The goal was to make a better computer, yet with less components, easier to produce and less expensive. Originally a Motorola 6809 microprocessor was planned but was abandoned for the MOS 6502 due to being significantly more expensive." (source : Wikipedia)
Orao was the computer of choice back in the eighties for educational
use in the Croatian elementary schools. When turned on it would start
the monitor, and you had to type a command to start the BASIC. There is no text mode. Characters are drawn in graphic mode in an 8x8 grid, allowing the system to display 32 characters x 32 lines.
Zoran Majcenic reports (source = www.homecomputer.de):
In 1985 in Croatia (then Yugoslavia), for purposes of education, a microcomputer called Orao (Eagle) was made for elementary schools. I believe that 2 per school were produced (so they are rare). It is a computer with 16 or 32 kb of memory, 6502 processor, internal speaker, 256x256 monochrome display, built-in BASIC and MONITOR programs. It can be connected using antenna or VIDEO connector. The PSU is integrated in its casing so you just directly plug it in power outlet.
Also, according to Karlo Siljeg (source = www.homecomputer.de):
"Orao" was made by a company called PEL Varazdin, Velebit was the distributor. Velebit also distributed a number of Apple II Compatible computers called "Impuls". Impuls was a Apple II compatible made by Ivel. Ivel was a company which made oil equipment. It manufactured microcontrollers and branched out in making Apple II compatibles. The company was based in the town of Ivanjic Grad. The Ivel micro was also distributed under the Ivel name as Ivel Ultra. The Ivel micro was one of the "standard" machines by the education board and they which were distributed in Croatia (then Yugoslavia) by the education department as Impuls. The company Velebit which imported Apple's into Croatia also distributed Ivels and Orao machines
Sinisa Kolaric adds:
"Orao" came bundled with a small black-and-white monochrome monitor. Also, the mentioned "MONITOR" program was actually a rudimentary assembler for 6502. It was a basic but architecturally clean machine, relatively powerful for that age. Something like C64 but without frills. A perfect introduction to the IBM PC which came a little bit later, along with the Amiga and Atari ST.
We need more info about this computer ! If you designed, used, or have more info about this system,
please send us pictures or anything you might find useful.
Here are the games: http://web.archive.org/web/20071006093814/http://www.foing.hr/~fng_josip/files/oraoigre.zip
Monday 11th March 2013
BigEd (United Kingdom)
We have found a tape! Josip was so kind to make a .tap archive and it is available on his homepage: there are blatant ex-yu ripoffs of Manic Miner, Jumping Jack, Space Invaders, and some more games... :)
Monday 5th February 2007
Josip Peruanec also made a perfect, first in a world ORAO emulator http://www.foing.hr/~fng_josip/files/oraoemu.zip